"Increasing Child Care Provider Awareness of Congenital Cytomegalovirus (cCMV)"
Leader of Childcare Providers Education & Outreach, National CMV
Foundation; Brenda Balch, MD, American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Early
Hearing Detection and Intervention Connecticut Chapter Champion
To be presented at the
CMV Public Health and Policy Conference
September 23-25, 2018 (poster session: Mon., Sept 24, 2018)
Burlington, Vermont: https://cmv.usu.edu/schedule.cfm
Click for PDF of What You Can Do to Help and References or see below:
YOU CAN DO TO HELP
Contact your state’s Departments
of Health, Labor, OSHA, and Child Care Licensing (found at:
childcareaware.org/providers), and ask for CMV education to be featured on
their websites. Ask that CMV education be included in the training child care
providers receive on infectious diseases.
CMV flyer links are available at the CDC,
National CMV Foundation, some state websites, and CongenitalCMV.blogspot.com.
The “Staff Education and Policies on Cytomegalovirus” in Caring for Our
Children can be found at: nrckids.org/CFOC/Database/184.108.40.206
Child care directors may worry about
frightening their workers. Remind them they probably already have proper
sanitizing procedures in place through compliance with protocols set forth by
the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), which
states, “Procedures are in place that address steps to reduce occupational
hazards such as infectious diseases (e.g., exposure of pregnant staff to
CMV…)" (NAEYC, 2014, p.90).
Contact state chapters of organizations that
promote the health of their members such as child care and teacher unions,
NAEYC, Early Head Start programs, and child care centers. Offer CMV flyers or
links to them.
In 2015, Connecticut passed a law requiring CMV
testing when an infant fails the hearing screen. Prevention education did not
pass, but the Connecticut Office of Early Childhood’s Division of Licensing for
Child Care Providers/Operators now includes “Congenital Cytomegalovirus” under
“Disease and Prevention” on its website. We are still working on making CMV
training mandatory for child care providers.
Adler, S. P. (2015, September). Prevention of
Maternal–Fetal Transmission of Cytomegalovirus. Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages
1027–1028. BioMedicine. Retrieved November 9, 2016, from
American Academy of Pediatrics, American Public Health
Association, National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and
Early Education. (Revised 2017). National Health and Safety Performance
Standards: Guidelines for Early Care and Education Programs. Retrieved from
Caring for Our Children: http://nrckids.org/CFOC/Database/220.127.116.11
American Academy of Pediatrics. "CHILDREN IN OUT-OF-HOME
CHILD CARE". Pickering LK, Baker CJ,Kimberlin DW, Long SS, eds. (2012). Red
Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases (29th ed.). Elk Grove
Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved from
Billette de Villemeur; Agathe; Gratacap-Cavallier, Bénédicte;
Caseya, Romain; Baccard-Longère, Monique; Goirand, Laurence; Seigneurin,
Jean-Marie; Morand, Patrice. (2011). Occupational risk for cytomegalovirus, but
not for parvovirus B19 in child-care personnel in France. ScienceDirect,
457-467. Retrieved from
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (Page last
reviewed: June 6, 2018). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Congenital CMV Infection.
Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
Department of Labor, Occupational Employment Statistics:
Childcare Workers. (2017, May). Retrieved from
Bureau of Labor Statistics: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes399011.htm
Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Childcare
Workers,. (2018 , June 11). Retrieved from Bureau
of Labor Statistics, U.S.:
DeWald, Olivia; Turovac, Casey; Balch, Brenda; Cienkowski,
Kathleen. (2018). National Child Care Provider's Awareness of Congenital
Cytomegalovirus. Poster session presented at Early Hearing Detection and
Intervention (EHDI) Conference in Denver, CO.
Doutre, S. M. Barrett, T. S. Greenlee, J. & White, K. R.
. (2016). Losing Ground: Awareness of Congenital Cytomegalovirus in the United
States. Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention, 1(2), 9-48.
Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1035&context=jehdi
Joseph, Serene A; Béliveau, Claire; Muecke,Cristin J; Rahme,
Elham; Soto,Julio C; Flowerdew, Gordon; Johnston, Lynn; Langille, Donald;
Gyorkos, Theresa W. (2006, Sept). Cytomegalovirus as an occupational risk in
daycare educators. Retrieved from PMC:
March of Dimes. (Last reviewed: Nov. 2013). Cytomegalovirus
and Pregnancy. Retrieved from March of Dimes: https://www.marchofdimes.org/complications/cytomegalovirus-and-pregnancy.aspx
Modlin, John F; Arvin, Ann; Fast, Patricia; Myers, Martin;
Plotkin, Stanley; Rabinovich, Regina . (2004, July 15 ). Vaccine Development to
Prevent Cytomegalovirus Disease: Report from the National Vaccine Advisory
Committee. Oxford Academic. Retrieved from
NAEYC. (2014, April 1). National Association for the
Education of Young Children: Early Childhood Program Standards and
Accreditation Criteria & Guidance for Assessment. Retrieved from
National Association for the Education of Young Children:
Nesti,Maria M. M. and Goldbaum, Moisés . (2007, July/Aug).
Infectious diseases and daycare and preschool education. Jornal de
Pediatria, 83(40). Retrieved from
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2016). Workers' Rights Booklet. Retrieved from Department of Labor:
Occupational Safety and Health Administration:
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cytomegaloviral infections of mothers and children. Retrieved from National
Center for Biotechnology Information:
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2017). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in early childhood education and care services.
Retrieved January 1, 2017, from Workplace Health and Safety:
Saint Louis, Catherine . (2016, Oct. 24). CMV Is a Greater
Threat to Infants Than Zika, but Far Less Often Discussed. New York Times.
Stowella, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay;
Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Cannon, Michael J;
Schmid, D. Scott . (2014, January). Cytomegalovirus Survival and
Transferability and the Effectiveness of Common Hand-Washing Agents against Cytomegalovirus
on Live Human Hands. American Society for Microbiology, 80(2 455-461).
Retrieved from http://aem.asm.org/content/80/2/455.full
Stranzinger J, Kozak A, Schilgen B, et al. (2016). Are
female daycare workers at greater risk of cytomegalovirus infection? A
secondary data analysis of CMV seroprevalence between 2010 and 2013 in Hamburg,
Germany. Retrieved from GMS Hygiene and Infection Control:
Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M. (2016, April).
Child Care Provider Awareness and Prevention of Cytomegalovirus and Other
Infectious Diseases. Child & Youth Care Forum, 45(2), 301–314.
Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10566-015-9325-y
Adler refers to five prevention education
studies in his article, “Prevention of Maternal–Fetal Transmission of
Cytomegalovirus” (2015). They are:
S.P., Finney, J.W., Manganello, A.M., and Best, A.M. Best prevention of child-to-mother
transmission of cytomegalovirus by changing behaviors: a randomized
controlled trial. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 1996; 15: 240–246
S.P., Finney, J.W., Manganello, A.M., and Best, A.M. Prevention of child-to-mother
transmission of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women. J.
Pediatr. 2004; 145: 485–491
J.W., Miller, K., and Adler, S.P. Changing protective and risky behaviors to prevent child-to-parent
transmission of cytomegalovirus. J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 1993; 26: 471–472
M.G., Tibaldi, C., Masuelli, G., Frisina, V., Sacchi, A., Furione, M.,
Arossa, A., Spinillo, A., Klersy, K., Ceccarelli, M., Gerna, G., Todros,
T., and the CCPE Study Group. Prevention
of primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy.EBioMedicine. 2015; 2: 1205–1210
C., Picone, O., Cordier, A.G. et al. Does hygiene counseling have an impact on the rate of CMV primary
infection during pregnancy? Results of a 3-year prospective study in a
French hospital. J. Clin. Virol. 2009;46: S49–S53
Links to read the PREVENTION STUDIES listed in Adler's 2015 summary paper,
"Prevention of Maternal–Fetal Transmission of Cytomegalovirus"
For more information, contact:
Lisa Saunders, PO Box 389, Mystic, CT 06355, LisaSaunders42@gmail.com, CongenitalCMV.blogspot.com